What is ADHD?
Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a neurobehavioral disorder that occurs in childhood and in a significant proportion in adulthood, with characteristics that change due to the person’s maturation. This is one of the most frequently occurring childhood disorders with the main features of distraction, impulsivity and hyperactivity.
Parents of children with ADHD are usually targeted at specialists during the early years of their child’s admission to school, due to the requirements of compliance, retention, and organization. It occurs more often in boys than girls and its etiology is not yet accurate. It seems, however, that genetic factors contribute to the onset of the disorder. Further structural, metabolic and functional differences are found in the brain of children with ADHD. Elements such as incomplete parental control and the unstable family structure can contribute to its deterioration but not to cause it.
There are three categories divided by the characteristics of children with ADHD:
1. The careless type
- They have difficulty in concentrating on work, play and activities with a specific engagement framework
- Makes misinformation mistakes and does not pay attention to details
- It looks as if he is not listening
- They have difficulty in completing tasks and in the command sequence
- They are easily detached from other stimuli in space
- They forget to do a job and avoid those that are related to spiritual effort
- They lose their stuff and they are not organized according to requirements
2. The hyperkinetic / impulsive type
- They ares constantly on the move, running and climbing
- They constantly move their arms and legs
- It is difficult to stay seated in one position, turns around in the chair and often gets up from it
- They always talke
- They don’t follow the rules in the game, do not expect their turn and has difficulty playing quietly in the activities
- They answer inconsiderably and interrupts the actions or discussions of others
3. Combined formula
This is a type of child that combines some of the above features associated with carelessness, impulsivity and hyperactivity.
In general, it should be noted that the image of children with ADHD is different as the range of symptoms they present is wide. Various behaviors may even be the behavior of the child himself during the day. Children with ADHD have normally normal intelligence.
There is, however, co-morbidity of ADHD and other disorders (learning difficulties, developmental disorders, anxiety disorders, emotions, etc.). Consequently, we conclude that these children usually have difficulty in developing speech, reading and writing mechanisms, and in the general learning process of acquiring new knowledge in the larger classes. Their social behavior is characterized by immaturity, they have dysfunctional relationships and often they are children with low self-esteem, increased levels of anxiety and emotional difficulties. In other cases, problems of opposing behavior, rule violation and aggression may coexist.
Diagnosis & Evaluation
It is important for the child to be properly assessed and to deal with the difficulties presented on the basis of clinical guidelines. In order to diagnose ADHD, the family and teachers need to work with the interdisciplinary child-psychiatric team that will make the assessment. Thus, all environmental factors, child behavioral patterns, and coexisting disorders associated with the disorder can be taken into account.
Every case of a person with ADHD is expressed differently and it is right to be treated with the same uniqueness. The therapeutic approach should be multilevel and include interventions to be followed by the patient and his / her family. ADHD is a disorder that can not be fully addressed. However, an early intervention from childhood can modify and improve some symptoms in order for the individual and his family to obtain a better quality of life.